This sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) has the potential to offset a plane's emissions of harmful carbon dioxide, or CO 2 , thanks to the CO 2 -absorbing plants used in its production. "We can electrify cars—but electrifying an airplane is difficult," said Hopkins team leader Brandon Bukowski, assistant professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering at Hopkins. The Hopkins team is closely examining a crucial factor: catalyst deactivation, which occurs when the catalyst gradually loses productivity over time, rendering the cost-to-benefit ratio no longer feasible. "Corporations don't want to see a light bulb light up once; they want to see it light up the 500th time. "Hopkins, especially with The Ralph O'Connor Sustainable Energy Institute has a really good team to do that.