This phenomenon, which Taylor dubbed Blood Falls, has captured people's imaginations and, until now, remained a scientific mystery. Using powerful transmission electron microscopes at Johns Hopkins' Materials Characterization and Processing facility, Ken Livi, a research scientist in the Whiting School's Department of Materials Science and Engineering, examined samples of Blood Falls' water and found tiny, iron-rich nanospheres. To understand this long-standing Blood Falls mystery, you must first understand Antarctic microbiology, Livi says. "With the advent of the Mars rover missions, there was an interest in trying to analyze the solids that came out of the waters of Blood Falls, as if it was a Martian landing site," he explains. Would it be able to determine what was causing the Blood Falls to be red?"